Textile-type glass fiber is material with a high tensile and impact strength which is light in weight and highly resistant to chemical reactions and which can be produced at low costs. These properties of the textile type glass fiber stimulates its use as a reinforcing element in plastics and composites which have increasingly been used instead of traditional materials and metals in recent years.
In the textile-type glass fiber production, various glasses with different compositions may be used. However, E-glass is the most preferred glass with a low alkali content. E-glass constitutes more than 90% of the textile-type glass fiber production in the world. Because when using E-glass, the glass fibers are less likely to be broken during the production. Addition of boron in the form of boric acid or colemanite into the E-glass facilitates the melting of the glass. The amount of B2O3 used in the E-glass is at the level of 7,5% in weight. In the form of colemanite, this ratio escalates to about 20% and constitutes the highest value in terms of costs.
There are various glass compositions used in the textile-type glass fiber production. These glass types are generally grouped by the firm "Owens Corning” through creating a standard. These are as follows:
A-Glass: Is also known as alkali glass for its boron content of about 0%-6% and alkali content of 16%
C-Glass: Is a calcium borosilicate glass with a boron content of about 6%
D-Glass: Is a borosilicate glass with a boron content of about 24%
E-Glass: Is an alumina-calcium-borosilicate glass with a boron content of 7%-10% and an alkali content of max. 2%
ECR-Glass: Is a calcium-alumino-silicate glass and does not contain boron.
AR-Glass: Is an alkali resistant glass with a boron content of about 8%, an alkali content of 11-21% and a zirconium content of 1-18%
R-Glass: Is a boron-free calcium-alumina-silicate glass.
S-2 Glass: Is a boron-free magnesium-alumino-silicate glass.